Ophthalmology in Ancient Greece

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The practice of ophthalmology in Ancient Greece can be divided into the pre-classical and classical period.

In the pre-classical period, divine interventions were believed to be essential for curing any diseases. There were some 30 gods in Greece who interested themselves in some aspect of medicine; and the offering of sacrifices and gifts of votice offerings were essential for an effective cure.

In classical Greece, with the appearance of Hippocrates of Kos, the practice of medicine was divorced from religion. His writings described several eye conditions, observation and cures.
Some inaccurate observations regarding eye signs from the Corpus Hippocraticum include:
Aphorisms Section VII 3.
Hiccup and redness of the eyes, when they supervene on vomiting, are bad.
(Modern interpretation: Subconjunctival haemorrhage following vomiting is
alarming but not life or sight-threatening.)

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Aphorisms Section VI 52.
We must attend to the appearances of the eyes in sleep, as presented from below; for if a portion of the white be seen between the closed eyelids, and if this be not connected with diarrhaea or severe purging, it is a very bad and mortal symptom.  
(Modern interpretation: Dry eye symptoms may occur with incomplete lid closure. Provided the patients have good Bell's phenomenon, visual impairment is unlikely. It is unlikely to be a very bad and mortal symptom.'
Aphorisms Section VI 31.
Pains of the eyes are removed by drinking pure wine, or the bath, or a fomentation, or venesection, or purging.

In acute diseases
For watery eyes. "Take one drachma of ebeny and nine oboli of burnt copper, rub them
upon a whet stone, add three oboli of saffron; triturate all these things reduced to a fine
powder, pour in an Attic hemina of sweet wine, and then place in the sun and cover up;
when sufficiently digested, use it".

For violent pains of the eyes. "Take of chalcitis, and of raisin, of each 1 dr., when digested for two days, strain; and pounding myrrh and saffron, and having mixed must, with these things, digest in the sun; and with this anoint the eyes when in a state of severe pain. Let it be kept in a copper vessel".

Hippocrates also described the management of trichiasis.
Having introduced a thread into the eye of a needle push it through the upper part of the distended eyelid, and do the same at the base of it; having stretched the threads tie a knot on them, and bind up until they drop out: and, if this be sufficient, so far well; but if otherwise, you must do the same thing again.
Hippocrates also describes buphthalmos in children but did not appear to know that it is associated with congenital glaucoma. He also noted that injury to one eye can cause the other good eye to lose its sight, probably the earliest record of sympathetic ophthalmia.