The eye injuries
The eye injuries are fairly common and sometimes very serious. It has been estimated that nearly 5 out of 10 in the home and the vast majority in children. 90% of these injuries could be avoided if preventive measures taken were. The eye injuries from chemical causes are mentioned in another article. To view this article, click here.

1. Epithelial erosion of corneal surface, the transparent layer that is part of the eye (more about cornea here).
The epithelium has a function similar to that of the skin. The cornea can be cut if you come in contact with grains of sand, dust, small pieces of wood, glass, metal, or the edge of a sheet of paper. When injured (the injury is usually superficial) caused acute pain with a strong sense of foreign body, intense sensitivity to light, redness, watering, swollen eyelids.
Is difficult to open the eyes and the vision is affected.

Apoptosis of the corneal epithelium as seen under the microscope using special dye.

This form of injury is a portal of entry of bacteria and fungi with the potential for contamination of the wound in less than 24 hours.
Do not pinch or rub your eye (may aggravate the injury of the cornea).
Do not put tight bandage and ice in the eye.
If a foreign body exists don’t try to remove it with homemade tools, so why the foreign body can injure more the cornea or penetrate the eyeball.
Rinse with saline under pressure (with a syringe that we remove the needle).
If there is no possibility of cleaning with antibiotic drops, artificial tears are particularly useful.
Do not use local anesthetics if not contact your doctor.
If pain, vision problems and blushing not subside, seek medical attention immediately.
The careful cleaning of the wound by an ophthalmologist and local drugs (eye drops) application is necessary. Full and speedy recovery as possible is important for maintaining corneal transparency.

2. Foreign matter on the surface of the eye.
Dust particles or eyelash contact with the eye, usually carried away and cleaned the tears caused by intense irritation and pain.
Often the eye blinking removes the foreign body.
You can help by lifting and pulling gently on the eyelid downward or washing the eye with artificial tears.
The feeling of foreign body remains for some time after injury, even if the foreign body was removed.
If pain, vision problems and blushing not subside, seek medical attention.

If the particle is large or is embedded and not excreted in tears then it is likely to cause injury. In this case, flush with saline under pressure (with a syringe that we remove the needle) or tap water.
If there is no possibility of cleaning, local antibiotics or artificial tears are particularly useful.
Then keep the eye closed without pressure by placing small gauze or a clean tissue over the eyelid and seek medical help.

Metal foreign bodies can create around them ring rust and a significant opaque scar. It is very important for your doctor to remove such foreign bodies as soon as possible.
Do not use local anesthetic eye drops if not contact your doctor.

Generally avoid "heroic efforts" for specialists.

3. Bleeding under the conjunctiva (hyposfagma):

Conjunctiva is the transparent tunic that covers the white tunic of the eye (hard). Hit the eye can cause bleeding between these two tunics, which is usually quite impressive and relevant concern. If the injury is only for superficial tissues no pain and no affects vision. The bleeding is usually absorbed within 1-2 weeks even without treatment. Preventive recommended eye examination to rule out serious damage.

4. Traumatic iridocyclitis and hyphema.

Is traumatic inflammation of the iris and the presence of blood in the anterior chamber (the space between the cornea and iris). Sometimes accompanied by peripheral detachment of the iris. Usually caused by trauma to the eye, without excluding other causes (hyphema in rubeosis iridis from a likely result of diabetic retinopathy).
The emergence of hyphema varies from microscopic (erythrocytes circulating in the aqueous) only visible by slit lamp examination to the universal, which fills the entire anterior chamber.
The hyphema is urgent and requires immediate ophthalmologic monitoring and care.

5. Ecchymosis.

In case of injury near the eye, the orbit bone in most cases will protect the bulb, but will not prevent the formation of edema and ecchymosis ( "black eye" - bruising) because of bleeding vessels that is not being brought under the skin of the area. A "black eye" seems daunting, but rarely is something serious.
If you accept a blow to the eye, place cold compresses for half an hour to reduce swelling and bruising.
Close the eye and seek medical help.

6. Eyelid Lacerations:

Quite often, children are often injured in the eyelids. It is usual incidents of injuries in the game with friends, the dog or other pet. Small cuts (lacerations) usually heal quickly and easily. It is sure to be a preventive eye examination to rule out the possibility of more serious injury concerns in the eye. A deep full thickness eyelid trauma can affect drainage and tearing street, should be treated surgically.

Other less common post trauma situations:

Traumatic ptosis.
Temporary paralysis of eye muscles.
Traumatic cataract.
Lens subluxation
Vitreous haemorrhage.
Choroidal rupture.

Posterior pole edema (Berlin's edema), traumatic retinopathy (which can be caused to any blunt trauma to the eye).
Retinal tear and retinal detachment.
Fracture of the orbit
(the most common fracture of the orbit ground that can come from being hit with tennis ball).


At home:

Remember that eye injuries can come from unexpected sources, such as a baby's nails, leaves and branches of plants.
To supervise the children while playing. Do not let small children play with toys intended for older children.
Do not buy toys that can cause injury to the eyes, like guns, plastic swords, toys or blasting accessories (slings, arrows).

Beware of your pets (sometimes become aggressive)!
Never give fireworks to children.
If you have early childhood, cover the corners of furniture with protective equipment, remove the toys from the stairs and do not leave exposed sharp objects.
Teach the child to use the correct knife and fork, if the use is scheduled for age, physical and mental development.
Learn how to properly use the scissors on creative activities and do not ever leave unattended. Make use of child safety scissors.

Outside the home:

When you move the car, do not allow your child to take out the head out the window because they can get in the eyes of insects, foreign bodies or powder.

In the garden:

In use, mowing machines, cutters, machine pruning, it is imperative to remove the children and wear a mask or goggles.
Before using such tools are good to look carefully if there are stones, earth or other objects that could be thrown forward and strikes the face and eyes.

At work:

Wear sunglasses whenever you use power tools and hand tools. Many of the most serious eye injuries caused to people using hammers.
Attention to dust, exhaust, small fragments of objects, which may cause injury.